JSON Object References

Paging Query Object

It describes how many items to fetch for object listing APIs. If index exceeds the number of pages calculated by the server, an empty list is returned.

Key Type Description
size int The number of items per page. If set zero or this object is entirely omitted, all items are returned and index is ignored.
index int The page number to show, zero-based.

Paging Info Object

It contains the paging information based on the paging query object in the request.

Key Type Description
pages int The number of total pages.
count int The number of all items.

KeyPair Item Object

Key Type Description
accessKey slug The access key part.
isActive bool Indicates if the keypair is active or not.
totalQueries int The number of queries done via this keypair. It may have a stale value.
created datetime The timestamp when the keypair was created.

KeyPair Properties Object

Key Type Description
isActive bool Indicates if the keypair is activated or not. If not activated, all authentication using the keypair returns 401 Unauthorized. When changed from true to false, existing running kernel sessions continue to run but any requests to create new kernel sessions are refused. (default: true)
concurrecy int The maximum number of concurrent kernel sessions allowed for this keypair. (default: 5)
ML.clusterSize int Sets the number of instances clustered together when launching new machine learning kernel sessions. (default: 1)
ML.instanceMemory int (MiB) Sets the memory limit of each instance in the cluster launched for new machine learning kernel sessions. (default: 8)

The enterprise edition offers the following additional properties:

Key Type Description
cost.automatic bool If set true, enables automatic cost optimization (BETA). With supported kernel types, it automatically suspends or resize the kernel sessions not to exceed the configured cost limit per day. (default: false)
cost.dailyLimit str The string representation of money amount as decimals. The currency is fixed to USD. (default: "50.00")

Batch Execution Query Object

Key Type Description
build str

The bash command to build the main program from the given uploaded files.

If this field is not present, an empty string or null, it skips the build step.

If this field is a constant string "*", it will use a default build script provided by the kernel. For example, the C kernel’s default Makefile adds all C source files under the working directory and copmiles them into ./main executable, with commonly used C/link flags: "-pthread -lm -lrt -ldl".

buildLog bool

Indicates whether to separately report the logs from the build step. (default: false)

If set false, all console outputs during the build step are swallowed silently and only the console outputs from the main program are returned. This looks like you only run the main program with a hidden build step.

However, if the build command fails with a non-zero exit code, then the "finished" response contains the swallowed console outputs of the build command. You can distinguish failures from the build step and the execution step using result.options.step value.

If set true, at least one "continued" response will be generated to explicitly report the console outputs from the build step. Like the execution step, there may be mulitple "continued" responses with result.options.exitCode set null when the build step takes long time.

exec str

The bash command to execute the main program.

If this is not present, an empty string, or null, the server only performs the build step and options.buildLog is assumed to be true (the given value is ignored).


All shell commands are by default executed under /home/work. The common environment is:


but individual kernels may have additional environment settings.


The shell does NOT have access to sudo or the root privilege. Though, some kernels may allow installation of language-specific packages in the user directory.

Also, your build script and the main program is executed inside Sorna Jail, meaning that some system calls are blocked by our policy. Since ptrace syscall is blocked, you cannot use native debuggers such as gdb.

This limitation, however, is subject to change in the future.


  "build": "gcc -Wall main.c -o main -lrt -lz",
  "exec": "./main"

Execution Result Object

Key Type Description
status enum[str]

One of "continued", "waiting-input", "finished".

If this is "continued", you should repeat making another API call until you get "finished" status. This happens when the user code runs longer than a few seconds, to allow the client to show its progress. When each call returns, the below result.stdout and result.stderr fields have the console logs captured since the last previous call. You should append returned console logs to your UI view to make it a complete log. When making continuation calls, you should not put anything in code field of the request, otherwise you will get 400 Bad Request.

If this is "waiting-input", you should make another API call with setting code field of the request to the user-input text. This happens when the user code calls interactive input() functions. Until you send the user input, the kernel code is blocked. You may use modal dialogs or other input forms (e.g., HTML input) to retrieve user inputs. When the server receives the user input, the kernel’s input() returns the given value. Note that the exact functions that trigger this mechanism are different language by langauge.

    enum[str], *

Contains a list of console output items. Each item is a pair of the item type (enum[str]) and its value (*). The item type is one of "stdout", "stderr", "media", "html", or "log".

When this is "stdout" or "stderr", the value is the standard I/O stream outputs as (non-escaped) UTF-8 string. Both fields are truncated to 524,288 Unicode characters. The stderr field includes not only stderr outputs but also language-specific tracebacks of (unhandled) exceptions or errors occurred in the user code.

When this is "media", the value is a pair of the MIME type and the content data. If the MIME type is text-based (e.g., "text/plain") or XML-based (e.g., "image/svg+xml"), the content is just a string that represent the content. Otherwise, the data is encoded as a data URI format (RFC 2397). You may use sorna-media library to handle this field in Javascript on web-browsers.

When this is "html", the value is a partial HTML document string, such as a table to show tabular data. If you are implementing a web-based front-end, you may use it directly to the standard DOM API, for instance, consoleElem.insertAdjacentHTML(value, "beforeend").

When this is "log", the value is a 4-tuple of the log level, the timestamp in the ISO 8601 format, the logger name and the log message string. The log level may be one of "debug", "info", "warning", "error", or "fatal". You may use different colors/formatting by the log level when printing the log message. This rich logging facilities are available to only supported kernels.

In the batch mode, it always has at least the following fields:

  • exitCode: An integer whose value is the exit code of the build command or the main command. Until the process for the current step exits, this field is null.
  • step: Which step it generated this response. Either "build" or "exec". It is useful when you wish to separately display the console outputs from the different steps.


All returned strings are not escaped. You should take care of this as well as formatting new lines properly (use <pre> element or replace them with <br>) when rendering the result to web browsers. An easy way to do this safely is to use insertAdjacentText() DOM API.

options object An object containing extra display options. If there is no options indicated by the kernel, this field is null. When result.status is "waiting-input", it has a boolean field is_password so that you could use different types of text boxes for user inputs.

Kernel Session Filter Object

Key Type Description
status enum[str] Either "ongoing" or "finished". Note that "finished" status includes "success" and "error" only whereas "ongoing" includes all other status.

Kernel Session Item Object

Key Type Description
id slug The kernel session ID.
type str The kernel type (typically the name of runtime or programming lanauge).
status enum[str] One of "preparing", "building”, "running", "restarting", "resizing", "success", "error", "terminating", "suspended".
statusInfo str An optional message related to the current status. (e.g., error information)
age int (msec) The time elapsed since the kernel has started.
execTime int (msec) The time taken for execution. Excludes the time taken for being suspended, restarting, and resizing.
numQueriesExecuted int The total number of queries executed after start-up.
memoryUsed int (MiB) The amount of memory currently used (sum of all resident-set size across instances). It may show a stale value.
cpuUtil int (%)

The current CPU utilization (sum of all used cores across instances, hence may exceed 100%). It may show a stale value.

Changed in version v3.20170615: This had been separated into multiple credit-based fields, but that was never implemented properly. We has changed it to represent more intuitive value.

config object Resource Config Object specified when created.

Resource Config Object

Key Type Description
clusterSize int The number of instances bundled for this session.
instanceMemory int (MiB) The maximum memory allowed per instance.

Virtual Folder Item Object

Key Type Description
name str The human readable name set when created.
id slug The unique ID of the folder. Use this when making API requests referring this folder.
linked bool Indicates if this folder is linked to an external service. (enterprise edition only)
usedSize int (MiB) The sum of the size of files in this folder.
numFiles int The number of files in this folder.
maxSize int (MiB) The maximum size of this folder.
created datetime The date and time when the folder is created.